WHY COULD FOREIGN BODIES BE FATAL? Due to the habits of eating a variety of foreign bodies, dogs and cats could develop serious complications that could lead to life-threatening conditions. The most concerning foreign bodies are linear (string, carpet, rugs), sharp (glass, skewer, etc) and metallic types. The complications associated with these materials are perforations of the intestinal lining, which … Read More


WHAT IS CLEFT PALATE? Cleft palate refers to a permanent opening between the nose and the mouth due to a birth defect. It can be categorized as primary cleft (involving the lip- nose), and secondary cleft (involving the roof of the mouth). This condition is genetic and the breeds most commonly affected are brachycephalic (Boston, Pekingese, Bulldogs etc.), and it … Read More


WHAT IS CHYLOTHORAX OR CHYLOUS EFFUSION? Chylothorax is the accumulation of fatty fluid (chyle) into the chest cavity of animals, that prevents the lungs to expand normally and oxygenate properly. WHERE IS THE CHYLE (MILKY FLUID) ORIGINATING? The milky fluid (chyle) originates from the digestions of fatty meals in the intestine, then via the lymphatic vessels, this fluid is emptied … Read More


Brachycephalic syndrome is a condition seen in short muzzle pets (Bull dogs, Pug, Pekinese, Persian cats) that present to the veterinarians for increased upper respiratory noises (noisy breathing), and respiratory difficulties. The condition is a syndrome because involves a combination of problems, which include a long palate, a malformed nose (stenotic nares), vocal box collapse (laryngeal collapse), small wind pipe … Read More


WHAT ARE THE MOST COMMON BONE TUMORS IN SMALL ANIMALS The most common bone tumor in dogs is osteosarcoma, being a very aggressive tumor with 100% metastatic rate. Unlike the canine population, osteosarcoma in cat can be curative due to its less aggressive behavior. Less common bone tumors are hemangi-osarcoma, fibro-sarcoma, and chondrosarcoma. ARE THERE PREDISPOSING FACTORS FOR BONE TUMOR … Read More


Dr. Tomas Infernuso, DVM, DACVS WHAT IS STOMACH BLOAT – TORSION? Stomach bloat-torsion also called Gastric Dilatation-Volvulus (GDV) in medical terminology, refers to a life-threatening condition, in which the stomach distends and rotates (twist) along its axis and cuts off the circulation of major organs. WHAT ARE THE PREDISPOSING FACTORS FOR STOMACH BLOAT-TORSION? Stomach bloat-torsion is seen in giant deep … Read More


Dr. Tomas Infernuso, DVM, DACVS WHAT IS THE FUNCTION OF THE GALLBLADDER? The gall bladder’s primary function is to store bile (breakdown of red blood cells from liver), which eventually flows into the intestine and helps with the digestion of fat. There are conditions such stones (gallstones), masses (tumor), or thickened bile (mucocele) that can obstruct the bile flow and … Read More


WHAT IS AURAL OR EAR HEMATOMA?  Ear hematoma is the presence of blood within the tissues of the flap of the ear also called pinna. The flappy ear becomes swollen, warm and painful. The condition is usually caused by the patient that selft-raumatizing the ear due to infections and or capillary fragility. HOW DO YOU TREAT EAR HEMATOMA? The treatment … Read More

Atlantoaxial instability / AA Luxation

What is AA luxation? AA luxation is also called atlanto-axial malalignment and it is commonly a congenital abnormality (birth defect), however traumatic causes can also be seen. The malalignment is between the cervical vertebra 1 and vertebra 2 and causes spinal cord impingement. Which breeds are commonly affected? Small breeds toy dogs are most commonly affected, with Toy Poodles, Pekinese, … Read More


WHAT ARE THE ANAL SACS? The anal sacs are small opening on each side of the anus, that release a smelly fluids, used by animals for sexual recognition. WHAT ARE THE MOST COMMON ANAL SAC TUMORS? The most common anal sac tumors are adenocarcinoma, and are very aggressive due to its invasiveness and spread. These particular tumors are 100% metastatic … Read More

What is an amputation?

Amputation referes to the removal of part (partial) or entire (full) leg. Partial amputation is performed when part of the limb is left attached to the rest of the body as a stump and prosthetic devices (artificial leg) can be attached to. The full amputation is performed by removing the entire leg with the scapula (shoulder blade) for the front … Read More

Achilles’ tendon injury and how to fix it

What is the cause of Achilles’ tendon tear? The Achilles’ tendon also called common calcaneal tendon can be injured from traumatic or degenerative changes of the tendon itself. The most common cause of tendon tear is traumatic, which includes (lacerations, pulling, and stretching), and less likely degenerative in nature, seen in Dobermans and Retrievers. What are the signs of Achilles’s … Read More